With this fourth volume, a history documenting the evolution of political processes in the United States is complete. The four volumes in The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections record the process by which the Confederation Congress and the thirteen original states implemented the electoral provisions of the federal Constitution of 1787. Contemporaries understood that the first federal Congress would "flesh out" the Constitution, and that the first federal elections were therefore an important step in the continuing struggle to shape, influence, and control the central government. The Constitution and the Confederation Congress allowed the states wide latitude in choosing Senators and in framing their laws for the election of the first presidential Electors and Representatives. This latitude encouraged experimentation and a lively public discussion about the entire electoral process. In all the volumes of The Documentary History of the First Federal Elections, the reader will find a wide range of sources from official proclamations to contemporary newspaper accounts, from biographical sketches of candidates to the election results. Maps showing electoral districts accompany the political developments in each state. Volume IV contains documents relating to elections in North Carolina and Rhode Island as well as to the election of the president and vice president.
This text is a comprehensive military history of frontier conflict in Australia. Covering the first 50 years of British occupation in Australia, the book examines in detail how both sides fought on the frontier and examines how Aborigines developed a form of warfare differing from tradition.
Never before or since has there been an experiment quite as bold as this. Eleven of the tiniest ships sailed for eight months over the roughest of seas, carrying fifteen hundred people, food for two years and all the equipment needed to build a colony of convicts in a land completely beyond their experience and imagination. In Portsmouth the fleet's preparation was characterised by disease, promiscuity and death. The journey itself was one of unbearable hardship, but also of extraordinary resilience, with the majority of settlers and exiles making it alive to the new colony at Sydney Cove. There, however, they faced their biggest challenges of all: conflict, starvation and despair. Combining the skill of a vigilant journalist with the magic of a master novelist, David Hill brings the sights, sounds, sufferings and triumphs of the First Fleeters back to life. Journals, letters, reports and pleas to England are all interwoven here with the author's own insight and empathy to convey the innermost horrors and joys of the very first European Australians. The result is a narrative history that is surprising, compelling and unforgettable.
This volume provides an important new synthesis of archaeological work carried out in Australia on the post-contact period. It draws on dozens of case studies from a wide geographical and temporal span to explore the daily life of Australians in settings such as convict stations, goldfields, whalers' camps, farms, pastoral estates and urban neighbourhoods. The different conditions experienced by various groups of people are described in detail, including rich and poor, convicts and their superiors, Aboriginal people, women, children, and migrant groups. The social themes of gender, class, ethnicity, status and identity inform every chapter, demonstrating that these are vital parts of human experience, and cannot be separated from archaeologies of industry, urbanization and culture contact. The book engages with a wide range of contemporary discussions and debates within Australian history and the international discipline of historical archaeology. The colonization of Australia was part of the international expansion of European hegemony in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. The material discussed here is thus fundamentally part of the global processes of colonization and the creation of settler societies, the industrial revolution, the development of mass consumer culture, and the emergence of national identities. Drawing out these themes and integrating them with the analysis of archaeological materials highlights the vital relevance of archaeology in modern society.
The Polish Revolution cast off the Russian hegemony that had kept the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth impotent for most of the eighteenth century. Before being overthrown by the armies of Catherine the Great, the Four Years' Parliament of 1788-92 passed wide-ranging reforms, culminating in Europe's first written constitution on 3 May 1791. In some respects its policies towards the Catholic Church of both rites (Latin and Ruthenian) were more radical than those of Joseph II, and comparable to some of those adopted in the early stages of the French Revolution. Policies included taxation of the Catholic clergy at more than double the rate of the lay nobility, the confiscation of episcopal estates, the equalization of dioceses, and controversial concessions to Orthodoxy. But the monastic clergy escaped almost unscathed. A method of explaining political decisions in a republican polity is developed in order to show how and why the Commonwealth went to the verge of schism with Rome in 1789-90, before drawing back. Pope Pius VI could then bless the 'mild revolution' of 3 May 1791, which Poland's clergy and monarch presented to the nobility as a miracle of Divine Providence. The stresses would be eclipsed by dechristianization in France, the dismemberment of the Commonwealth, and subsequent incarnations of unity between the Catholic Church and the Polish nation. Probing both 'high politics' and political culture', Richard Butterwick draws on diplomatic and political correspondence, speeches, pamphlets, sermons, pastoral letters, proclamations, records of local assemblies, and other sources to explore a volatile relationship between altar, throne, and nobility at the end of Europe's Ancien Régime.
The first 'bushrangers' or frontier outlaws were escaped or time-expired convicts, who took to the wilderness – 'the bush' – in New South Wales and on the island of Tasmania. Initially, the only Crown forces available were redcoats from the small, scattered garrisons, but by 1825 the problem of outlawry led to the formation of the first Mounted Police from these soldiers. The gold strikes of the 1860s attracted a new group of men who preferred to get rich by the gun rather than the shovel. The roads, and later railways, that linked the mines with the cities offered many tempting targets and were preyed upon by the bushrangers. This 1860s generation boasted many famous outlaws who passed into legend for their boldness. The last outbreak came in Victoria in 1880, when the notorious Kelly Gang staged several hold-ups and deliberately ambushed the pursuing police. Their last stand at Glenrowan has become a legendary episode in Australian history. Fully illustrated with some rare period photographs, this is the fascinating story of Australia's most infamous outlaws and the men tasked with tracking them down.
In 1788 Watkin Tench stepped ashore at Botany Bay with the First Fleet. This curious young captain of the marines was an effortless storyteller. His account of the infant colony is the first classic of Australian literature.
The greatest divergence of opinion in the three-month controversy over the Regency in 1788-9 was within the opposition party itself. Dr Derry shows that this political crisis was the first stage in the break-up of the old Whig party, which was finally precipitated by the disputes over the French Revolution. His book is a study of the effects of George III's madness upon Fox, Burke and the Whigs. Dr Derry sketches in the general political background, giving character studies of Pitt and Fox. He discusses the constitutional problems of a Regency and the medical diagnoses of the King's doctors, a major factor governing political conduct since so much depended on the condition of the King.
ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award winner A fresh look at the life of Mozart during his imperial years by one of the world's leading Mozart scholars. "I now stand at the gateway to my fortune," Mozart wrote in a letter of 1790. He had entered into the service of Emperor Joseph II of Austria two years earlier as Imperial-Royal Chamber Composer—a salaried appointment with a distinguished title and few obligations. His extraordinary subsequent output, beginning with the three final great symphonies from the summer of 1788, invites a reassessment of this entire period of his life. Readers will gain a new appreciation and understanding of the composer's works from that time without the usual emphasis on his imminent death. The author discusses the major biographical and musical implications of the royal appointment and explores Mozart's "imperial style" on the basis of his major compositions—keyboard,chamber, orchestral, operatic, and sacred—and focuses on the large, unfamiliar works he left incomplete. This new perspective points to an energetic, fresh beginning for the composer and a promising creative and financial future.
A biography of Sacagawea, the Shoshoni who was an interpreter on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, including her childhood in a Shoshoni village, capture by Hidatsas, and reunion with her brother. Includes sidebars, activities, a chronology, and a map.