A History of Chile chronicles the nation's political, social, and economic evolution from its independence until the early years of the Lagos regime. Employing primary and secondary materials, it explores the growth of Chile's agricultural economy, during which the large landed estates appeared; the nineteenth-century wheat and mining booms; the rise of the nitrate mines; their replacement by copper mining; and the diversification of the nation's economic base. This volume also traces Chile's political development from oligarchy to democracy, culminating in the election of Salvador Allende, his overthrow by a military dictatorship, and the return of popularly elected governments. Additionally, the volume examines Chile's social and intellectual history: the process of urbanization, the spread of education and public health, the diminution of poverty, the creation of a rich intellectual and literary tradition, the experiences of middle and lower classes and the development of Chile's unique culture.
A History of Chile traces the nation's political, economic, and social evolution from its independence until the 1994 inauguration of President Eduardo Frei. This book explains how Chile evolved politically from a nation dominated by a small aristocracy into a democracy, and how it created an economy that increasingly relied on its factories rather than solely on its mines. Finally, it explains the development of Chilean culture, which is a unique fusion of European and Latin American sources.
This volume examines the processes and patterns of Araucanian cultural development and resistance to foreign influences and control through the combined study of historical and ethnographic records complemented by archaeological investigation in south-central Chile. This examination is done through the lens of Resilience Theory, which has the potential to offer an interpretive framework for analyzing Araucanian culture through time and space. Resilience Theory describes “the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain the same function.” The Araucanians incorporated certain Spanish material culture into their own, rejected others, and strategically restructured aspects of their political, economic, social, and ideological institutions in order to remain independent for over 350 years.
Recognizing the interplay between biomedicine and indigenous medicine among the Mapuche in Southern Chile, this book explores notions of culture and personhood through the bodily experiences and medical choices of patients. Through case studies of patients in the context of medical pluralism, Kristensen argues that medical practices are powerful social symbol indicative of overarching socio-political processes. As certain types of extreme and violent experiences–known as olvidos–lack a framework that allows them to be expressed openly, they therefore surface as symptoms of an illness, often with no apparent organic pathology. In these contexts, indigenous medicine, thanks to its sensitivity to socio-political contexts, provides a space for articulation and management of collective experiences and suffering among patients in Southern Chile.
Unsettling Nostalgia in Spain and Chile: Longing for Resistance in Literature and Film reframes nostalgia to analyze how writers and filmmakers have responded to 20th-century dictatorial violence and loss in Spain and Chile. By reaching beyond reductive definitions that limit nostalgia to a conservative desire to defend traditional power hierarchies, Lisa DiGiovanni captures the complexity of a critically conscious type of longing and form of transmission that she terms “unsettling nostalgia.” Using literature and film, DiGiovanni illustrates how unsettling nostalgia imbues representations of pre-dictatorial mobilization during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) and the Chilean Popular Unity (1970–1973), as well as depictions of clandestine resistance to the Franco dictatorship (1939–1975) and the Pinochet regime (1973–1989). Positive memories of efforts to upend power hierarchies coexist with retrospective critiques that fissure romanticized views of revolutionary struggle. Unsettling nostalgic works engender deeper understandings of the complexities of political movements and how stories of resistance are meaningful today. By calling attention to the parallels between nostalgic modes that resist multiple injustices based on gender, class, and sexuality, this book traces an evocative continuity between Spain and Chile that goes beyond the initial work that links forms of militaristic authoritarianism. Scholars of Latin American studies, film studies, literary studies, history, women's and gender studies, memory studies, and rhetoric will find this book particularly useful.
Based on 15 months of ethnographic research in the city of Alto Hospicio in northern Chile, this book describes how the residents use social media, and the consequences of this use in their daily lives. Nell Haynes argues that social media is a place where Alto Hospicio’s residents – or Hospiceños – express their feelings of marginalisation that result from living in city far from the national capital, and with a notoriously low quality of life compared to other urban areas in Chile. In actively distancing themselves from residents in cities such as Santiago, Hospiceños identify as marginalised citizens, and express a new kind of social norm. Yet Haynes finds that by contrasting their own lived experiences with those of people in metropolitan areas, Hospiceños are strengthening their own sense of community and the sense of normativity that shapes their daily lives. This exciting conclusion is illustrated by the range of social media posts about personal relationships, politics and national citizenship, particularly on Facebook
Intended to help students explore ethnic identity—one of the most important issues of the 21st century—this concise, one-stop reference presents rigorously researched content on the national groups and ethnicities of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
The Chile Reader makes available a rich variety of documents spanning more than five hundred years of Chilean history. Most of the selections are by Chileans; many have never before appeared in English. The history of Chile is rendered from diverse perspectives, including those of Mapuche Indians and Spanish colonists, peasants and aristocrats, feminists and military strongmen, entrepreneurs and workers, and priests and poets. Among the many selections are interviews, travel diaries, letters, diplomatic cables, cartoons, photographs, and song lyrics. Texts and images, each introduced by the editors, provide insights into the ways that Chile's unique geography has shaped its national identity, the country's unusually violent colonial history, and the stable but autocratic republic that emerged after independence from Spain. They shed light on Chile's role in the world economy, the social impact of economic modernization, and the enduring problems of deep inequality. The Reader also covers Chile's bold experiments with reform and revolution, its subsequent descent into one of Latin America's most ruthless Cold War dictatorships, and its much-admired transition to democracy and a market economy in the years since dictatorship.
With this guide, major help for nineteenth-century World History term papers has arrived to enrich and stimulate students in challenging and enjoyable ways. Show students an exciting and easy path to a deep learning experience through original term paper suggestions in standard and alternative formats, including recommended books, websites, and multimedia. Students from high school age to undergraduate can get a jumpstart on assignments with the hundreds of term paper suggestions and research information offered here in an easy-to-use format. Users can quickly choose from the 100 important events, spanning the period from the Haitian Revolution that ended in 1804 to the Boer War of 1899-1902. With this book, the research experience is transformed and elevated. Term Paper Resource Guide to Nineteenth-Century World History is a superb source with which to motivate and educate students who have a wide range of interests and talents. Coverage includes key wars and revolts, independence movements, and theories that continue to have tremendous impact. * Each event entry begins with a brief summary to pique interest * Each entry offers original and thought-provoking term paper ideas in both standard and alternative formats that often incorporate the latest in electronic media, such as the iPod and iMovie * The best in primary and secondary sources for further research are annotated * Vetted, stable website suggestions and multimedia resources, usually videos, are noted for further viewing * Alternative term paper suggestions encourage role-playing to personalize the learning experience
This volume of essays on the life and legacy of Simón Bolívar looks at the impact of "the Liberator" as warrior, political thinker and leader, internationalist, continentalist, reformer, and revolutionary. An appraisal of Bolívar's role in the Spanish American wars of independence, this offers an explanation of why the Bolívarian legend and cult has persisted.
This book demonstrates the importance of the presence of the Royal Navy in South America. Historically there have been no treaty obligations and few strategic considerations in the region, yet it is frequently referred to as forming part of Britain's 'unofficial empire'. The role of the Navy in supporting foreign relations and promoting commerce is examined during a period of the twentieth century which is often associated with the decline of the British Empire. The Role of the Royal Navy in South America, 1920-1970 shows how the Royal Navy reacted to changing circumstances during the post-war decades by adopting a more pro-active attitude towards the imperative of supporting naval exports. It provides a scholarly investigation of this important peacetime role for the service and offers the first book-length study of the Navy's involvement in the region during this period.
This is a concise, step-by-step guide to conducting qualitative nursing research using various forms of historical analysis. It is part of a unique series of books devoted to seven different qualitative designs and methods in nursing, written for both novice researchers and specialists seeking to develop or expand their competency. Historical research is a qualitative research method that systematically examines past events from existing documents or other data, or by interviewing individuals who lived through those events, in order to understand the past. Written by a noted qualitative research scholar and contributing experts, the book describes the philosophical basis for conducting research using historical analysis and delivers an in-depth plan for applying its methodologies to a particular study, including appropriate methods, ethical considerations, and potential challenges. It presents practical strategies for solving problems related to the conduct of research using the various forms of analysis and presents a rich array of case examples from published nursing research. These include author analyses to support readers in decision making regarding their own projects. The book provides a variety of examples of historical method studies, on topics such as mental health research, working with Navajo communities, World War II evacuation nursing, and many others. Focused on the needs of both novice researchers and specialists, it will be of value to health institution research divisions, in-service educators and students, and graduate nursing educators and students. Key Features: Explains how to conduct nursing research using autobiography, biography, oral history, and document review Presents state-of-the-art designs and protocols Focuses on solving practical problems related to the conduct of research Features rich nursing exemplars in a variety of health/mental health clinical settings in the United States and internationally
This volume contains a collection of statistics, surveys and essays on the region and includes contributions from acknowledged authorities who examine topics of regional importance. It includes individual chapters on each country and territory.
This book examines the tragic development and ultimate resolution of Latin America's human rights crisis of the 1970s and 1980s. Thomas Wright focuses especially on state terrorism in Chile under General Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990) and in Argentina during the Dirty War (1976-1983). He offers a nuanced exploration of the reciprocal relationship between Argentina and Chile and human rights movements, clearly demonstrating how state terrorism in these countries strengthened the international human rights lobby and how, in turn, that more powerful lobby ultimately helped bring repressors to justice. These intertwined themes make this book important reading not only for Latin Americanists but for students of human rights and international relations as well.
Presenting case studies by anthropologists, historians, political scientists, and environmental specialists, Lost in the Long Transition critically examines the impact of neoliberal economic and social policies at the local level in post-dictatorship Chile. Topics include privatization of water rights, tuberculosis and public health crises, the role of labor unions, industrial salmon farming, natural resource conservation, the political ecology of copper, struggles for affordable housing, homelessness and citizenship rights, and gender identity issues in the experiences of returned exiles
Achieving stability in government coalitions within presidential systems is not a common political phenomenon. On March 11, 2010, the Coalition of Parties for Democracy CPD - Concertacin de Partidos por la Democracia, a coalition created in Chile to defeat Pinochet, ended twenty years in power. Its continuity is particularly surprising if we consider that this coalition was formed by parties and political leaders who, in the sixties and at the beginning of the seventies, were political enemies. Why was the Concertacin one of the most successful coalitions in Latin American political history? From a political science point of view, the most common explanations provided to understand this phenomenon have mainly been external, focused on institutions and context. We argue that the success of the Concertacin was also due to its ability to sustain coalition governability, in itself understood as the maintaining of coalitions and cabinet stability. We analyze two dependent variables: one at a party level maintaining coalitions and the other at an individual level cabinet stability. We have two sets of explanations or independent variables for coalition and cabinet stability: long-term ones, related to political learning, and short-term contextual ones, related to presidential autonomy suprapartidismo, the informal rules of power sharing and the political use of technocrats. In developing our argument, we build on hypotheses drawn from the literature on technocrats as well as different findings regarding coalition theory and informal rules. Using descriptive statistics, we analyze all the Concertacin cabinets as a single case study, contrasting it to earlier periods. We also explore variation across the four Concertacin administrations. Our main finding is that, in comparison to pre-1973 democracy, the Concertacin administrations were more stable, with the Aylwin administration the most stable. We also observe that the patterns of power distribution and cabinet administration in the other Concertacin administrations vary in relation to how Presidents administer their autonomy suprapartidismo, apply informal rules of power sharing and appoint technocrats. Suprapartidismo is the independent variable that most explains change
This is a comprehensive analysis of three decades of neoliberal policies in Chile, from the Pinochet dictatorship until today.Chile is often described as a 'model' of neoliberal development policy. Marcus Taylor questions this description. Examining the contradictions of neoliberlism, he demonstrates how it has created a society that is deeply ridden with inequalities.Taylor shows how the tensions that arose from this social inequality led to the emergence of a 'Third Way' neoliberalism in the post-dictatorship period. Taylor argues that this new development paradigm has failed. This is a result of the inability of 'Third Way' neoliberalism to transform social relationships and institutions.The nature of this failure affects the direction of popular movements for social change in Latin America during a time of renewed social and political upheaval.