Judge and be Judged

Moral Reflection in an Age of Relativism and Fundamentalism

Judge and be Judged

Judge and Be Judged offers insights into moral life and moral judgment that aim to help in understanding our society's tendency towards either fundamentalism or relativism. By examining the social function of shame, the possibility of cross-cultural understanding, and obstacles to moral judgment in the classroom, this book charts a path that helps to avoid both fundamentalism and relativism.

Law, Ideology and Punishment

Retrieval and Critique of the Liberal Ideal of Criminal Justice

Law, Ideology and Punishment

This book is about 'Kantianism' in both a narrow and a broad sense. In the former, it is about the tracing of the development of the retributive philosophy of punishment into and beyond its classical phase in the work of a number of philosophers, one of the most prominent of whom is Kant. In the latter, it is an exploration of the many instantiations of the 'Kantian' ideas of individual guilt, responsibility and justice within the substantive criminal law . On their face, such discussions may owe more or less explicitly to Kant, but, in their basic intellectual structure, they share a recognisably common commitment to certain ideas emerging from the liberal Enlightenment and embodied within a theory of criminal justice and punishment which is in this broader sense 'Kantian'. The work has its roots in the emergence in the 1970s and early 1980s in the United States and Britain of the 'justice model' of penal reform, a development that was as interesting in terms of the sociology of philosophical knowledge as it was in its own right. Only a few years earlier, I had been taught in undergraduate criminology (which appeared at the time to be the only discipline to have anything interesting to say about crime and punishment) that 'classical criminology' (that is, Beccaria and the other Enlightenment reformers, who had been colonised as a 'school' within criminology) had died a major death in the 19th century, from which there was no hope of resuscitation.

Punishment and Desert

Punishment and Desert

Superficial acquaintance with the literature on punishment leaves a fairly definite impression. There are two approaches to punishment - retributive and utilitarian - and while some attempts may be made to reconcile them, it is the former rather than the latter which requires the reconciliation. Taken by itself the retributive approach is primitive and unenlightened, falling short of the rational civilized humanitarian values which we have now acquired. Certainly this is the dominant impression left by 'popular' discussions of the SUbject. And retributive vs. utilitarian seems to be the mould in which most philosophical dis cussions are cast. The issues are far more complex than this. Punishment may be con sidered in a great variety of contexts - legal, educational, parental, theological, informal, etc. - and in each of these contexts several im portant moral questions arise. Approaches which see only a simple choice between retributivism and utilitarianism tend to obscure this variety and plurality. But even more seriously, the distinction between retributivism and utilitarianism is far from clear. That it reflects the traditional distinction between deontological and teleological ap proaches to ethics serves to transfer rather than to resolve the un clarity. Usually it is said that retributive approaches seek to justify acts by reference to features which are intrinsic to them, whereas utilitarian approaches appeal to the consequences of such acts. This, however, makes assumptions about the individuation of acts which are difficult to justify.

If You Are the Son of God

The Suffering and Temptations of Jesus

If You Are the Son of God

This significant book, written a few years before his death, presents Ellul's fullest understanding of the meaning of Jesus' life. One finds all of the major themes of Ellul's writings. The first half of this book deals with Jesus' sufferings, which are by no means limited to Good Friday. Through Jesus' identification with "the whole human condition," we are offered the possibility of both enduring and overcoming suffering. Similarly, the temptations are understood beyond the wilderness temptation narrative since Jesus experiences them throughout his ministry. Ellul believes temptations are ultimately human avenues for tempting God, and so focuses on the discussion power and "non-power," be it on personal or political levels. Appropriately, Ellul enters into the passion narrative not simply in the context of suffering but in the context of temptation, where Jesus could have easily "proved his divinity," but chose instead to reveal both the character and way of God.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA; Or, A DICTIONARY of Arts and Sciences, Compiled Upon a New Plan. In Wich the Different Science and Arts are Digested Into Distinct Treatises Or Systems; and The Various Technical Terms, ... are Explained as They Occur in the Order of the Alphabet. Illustrated with One Hundred and Sixty Copperplates, by a Society of Gentlemen in Scotland. IN THREE VOLUMES. Edinburgh: Printed for A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar; and Fold by Colin Macfarquhar, at this Printing-office, Nicolson Street. M.D.CC.LXXI.

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA; Or, A DICTIONARY of Arts and Sciences, Compiled Upon a New Plan. In Wich the Different Science and Arts are Digested Into Distinct Treatises Or Systems; and The Various Technical Terms, ... are Explained as They Occur in the Order of the Alphabet. Illustrated with One Hundred and Sixty Copperplates, by a Society of Gentlemen in Scotland. IN THREE VOLUMES. Edinburgh: Printed for A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar; and Fold by Colin Macfarquhar, at this Printing-office, Nicolson Street. M.D.CC.LXXI.


What is Justice?

Justice, Law, and Politics in the Mirror of Science : Collected Essays

What is Justice?

Kelsen, Hans. What is Justice? Justice, Law and Politics in the Mirror of Science. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957. [vi], 397 pp. Reprinted 2000 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN 1-58477-101-1. Cloth. New. $95. * Through the lens of science, Kelsen proposes a dynamic theory of natural law, examines Platonic and Aristotelian doctrines of justice, the idea of justice as found in the holy scriptures, and defines justice as "...that social order under whose protection the search for truth can prosper. 'My' justice, then, is the justice of freedom, the justice of peace, the justice of democracy-the justice of tolerance." (p. 24).

Reasons for Belief

Easy-to-Understand Answers to 10 Essential Questions

Reasons for Belief

Trusted Theologian Presents a Case for Christian Faith in Easy-to-Understand Language Seminary professor and bestselling author teams with a seminary-trained apologist and teacher to give readers basic, solid evidence for the Christian faith. This book is ideal for both teens and adults. Lay leaders and teachers as well as students will be equipped to explain the basics of Christianity to unbelievers and new believers. The accessible and topically organized book is easy to understand and use.