A fresh perspective on the decline and future of mass transit
Since its opening in 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge has become an icon for the beauty and prosperity of the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as a symbol of engineering achievement. Constructing the bridge posed political and financial challenges that were at least as difficult as those faced by the project's builders. To meet these challenges, northern California boosters created a new kind of agency: an autonomous, self-financing special district. The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District developed into a powerful organization that shaped the politics and government of the Bay Area as much as the bridge shaped its physical development. From the moment of the bridge district's incorporation in 1928, its managers pursued their own agenda. They used all the resources at their disposal to preserve their control over the bridge, cultivating political allies, influencing regional policy, and developing an ambitious public relations program. Undaunted by charges of mismanagement and persistent efforts to turn the bridge (as well as its lucrative tolls) over to the state, the bridge district expanded into mass transportation, taking on ferry and bus operations to ensure its survival to this day. Drawing on previously unavailable archives, Paying the Toll gives us an inside view of the world of high-stakes development, cronyism, and bureaucratic power politics that have surrounded the Golden Gate Bridge since its inception.
This book treats William Faulkner's major fiction--from Flags in the Dust through to Absalom, Absalom!--to a searching reappraisal under the spotlight of a media-historical inquiry. It proposes that Faulkner's inveterate attraction to the paradigms of romance was disciplined and masked by the recurrent use of metaphorical figures borrowed from the new media ecology. Faulkner dressed up his romance materials in the technological garb of radio, gramophony, photography, and cinema, along with the transportational networks of road and air that were being installed in the 1920s. His modernism emerges from a fraght but productive interplay between his anachronistic predilection for chivalric chichés and his extraordinarily knowledgeable interest in the most up-to-date media institutions and forms. Rather than see Faulkner as a divided author, who worked for money in the magazines and studios while producing his serious fiction in despite of their symbolic economies, this study demonstrates how profoundly his mature art was shot through with the figures and dynamics of the materials he publicly repudiated. The result is a richer and more nuanced understanding of the dialectics of his art.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th Congress of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, AI*IA 2005, held in Milan, Italy in September 2005. The 46 revised full papers presented together with 16 revised short papers were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are organized in topical sections on either theoretical research with results and proposals, improvements and consolidations, or on applications as there are systems and prototypes, case studies and proposals. Within this classification some of the main classical topics of AI are presented (agents, knowledge representation, machine learning, planning, robotics, natural language, etc.), but here the focus is on the ability of AI computational approaches to face challenging problems and to propose innovative solutions.
This volume presents new theoretical approaches, methodologies, subject pools, and topics in the field of environmental anthropology. Environmental anthropologists are increasingly focusing on self-reflection - not just on themselves and their impacts on environmental research, but also on the reflexive qualities of their subjects, and the extent to which these individuals are questioning their own environmental behavior. Here, contributors confront the very notion of "natural resources" in granting non-human species their subjectivity and arguing for deeper understanding of "nature," and "wilderness" beyond the label of "ecosystem services." By engaging in interdisciplinary efforts, these anthropologists present new ways for their colleagues, subjects, peers and communities to understand the causes of, and alternatives to environmental destruction. This book demonstrates that environmental anthropology has moved beyond the construction of rural, small group theory, entering into a mode of solution-based methodologies and interdisciplinary theories for understanding human-environmental interactions. It is focused on post-rural existence, health and environmental risk assessment, on the realm of alternative actions, and emphasizes the necessary steps towards preventing environmental crisis.
Transit-oriented development (TOD) seeks to maximize access to mass transit and nonmotorized transportation with centrally located rail or bus stations surrounded by relatively high-density commercial and residential development. New Urbanists and smart growth proponents have embraced the concept and interest in TOD is growing, both in the United States and around the world. New Transit Town brings together leading experts in planning, transportation, and sustainable design—including Scott Bernstein, Peter Calthorpe, Jim Daisa, Sharon Feigon, Ellen Greenberg, David Hoyt, Dennis Leach, and Shelley Poticha—to examine the first generation of TOD projects and derive lessons for the next generation. It offers topic chapters that provide detailed discussion of key issues along with case studies that present an in-depth look at specific projects. Topics examined include: the history of projects and the appeal of this form of development a taxonomy of TOD projects appropriate for different contexts and scales the planning, policy and regulatory framework of "successful" projects obstacles to financing and strategies for overcoming those obstacles issues surrounding traffic and parking the roles of all the actors involved and the resources available to them performance measures that can be used to evaluate outcomes Case Studies include Arlington, Virginia (Roslyn-Ballston corridor); Dallas (Mockingbird Station and Addison Circle); historic transit-oriented neighborhoods in Chicago; Atlanta (Lindbergh Center and BellSouth); San Jose (Ohlone-Chynoweth); and San Diego (Barrio Logan). New Transit Town explores the key challenges to transit-oriented development, examines the lessons learned from the first generation of projects, and uses a systematic examination and analysis of a broad spectrum of projects to set standards for the next generation. It is a vital new source of information for anyone interested in urban and regional planning and development, including planners, developers, community groups, transit agency staff, and finance professionals.
'The world has entered the urban millennium. Nearly half the world's people are now city dwellers, and the rapid increase in urban population is expected to continue, mainly in developing countries. This historic transition is being further propelled by the powerful forces of globalization. The central challenge for the international community is clear: to make both urbanization and globalization work for all people, instead of leaving billions behind or on the margins. Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements is a comprehensive review of conditions in the world's cities and the prospects for making them better, safer places to live in an age of globalization. I hope that it will provide all stakeholders - foremost among them the urban poor themselves - with reliable and timely information with which to set our policies right and get the machinery of urban life moving in a constructive direction.' From the Foreword by Kofi Annan, Secretary-General, United Nations. Cities in a Globalizing World presents a comprehensive review of the world's cities and analyses the positive and negative impacts on human settlements of the global trends towards social and economic integration and the rapid changes in information and communication technologies. In this Global Report, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) draws on specially commissioned and contributed background papers from more than 80 leading international specialists. The report focuses on recent trends in human settlements and their implications for poverty, inequity and social polarization. It develops advance knowledge for urban planning and management policies in support and promotion of inclusive cities and good urban governance. This major and influential report is the most authoritative and up-to-date assessment of human settlements conditions and trends. Written in clear, non-technical language and supported by informative graphics, case studies and extensive statistical data, it should be an essential tool and reference for academics, researchers, planners, public authorities and civil society organizations around the world.
Bringing together classic readings from a wide variety of sources, this key book investigates how our cities and towns can become more sustainable. Thirty-eight selections span issues such as land use planning, urban design, transportation, ecological restoration, economic development, resource use and equity planning. Section introductions outline the major themes, whilst the editors' introductions to the individual writings explain their interest and significance to wider debates. Additional sections present twenty-four case studies of real-world sustainable urban planning examples, sustainability planning exercises, and further reading. Providing background in theory, practical application, and vision, in a clear, accessible format, The Sustainable Urban Development Reader is an essential resource for students, professionals, and indeed anyone interested in the future of urban environments.
Because evidence that shows that diesel fumes are more toxic than was previously thought, there has been increased interest in the use of natural gas for vehicles operating in cities. Transit buses, traditionally fueled by diesel, are one of the cheapest forms of mass transit. They are also significant polluters and typically operate in heavily congested urban areas, where significant air pollution problems exist. The report provides an overview of the issues that must be considered when evaluating natural gas an alternative to diesel for use in transit buses.
ABSTRACT There are five different publications that establish guidelines for sustainable building development that are examined in this report: (1) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ("LEED"); (2) CalGreen; (3) the International Green Construction Code ("IGCC"); (4) ASHRAE Standard 189.1 ("Standard 189.1"); and (5) The San Francisco's Green Building Ordinance ("SFGBO"). Having multiple publications can cause confusion among building developers, architects, engineers, building consultants, or various jurisdictions on what publication to follow, use, or reference in building development projects. This thesis will provide various parties involved in building development a thorough understanding of each publication and the similarities or differences between them, which will ultimately assist in identifying areas for all publications to improve. Specifically, this thesis demonstrates that the Material and Energy sections for all the publications must advance beyond the current requirements. Also, the comparison validates that CalGreen's Tier 2 is similar to LEED's local ordinances, like the SFGBO. This may mean two things: (1) LEED will need to advance its gold or platinum certification requirements, or potentially become less relevant; or (2) local ordinances should reference or adopt CalGreen Tier 2 so that there is common language between local and state regulations. This thesis identifies that LEED has the most stringent guidelines under the Building Site section out of all the publications. Likewise, the IGCC and Standard 189.1 have provisions under Water Use that push beyond other publications. Additionally, similar language between LEED and Standard 189.1 was found, which was unsurprising as both publications are authored by the USGBC.#.
This timely new book uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources available to meet them. Current trends are putting China on an unsustainable and insecure energy growth path, characterized by the use of enormous quantities of "dirty" coal and an alarming oil import dependence. The authors find that what is urgently needed is a high-level commitment to an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive policy that is set in the framework of the energy law currently being prepared.
World Bank Discussion Paper No. 352. Presents the proceedings of the China Urban Transport Symposium, held in Beijing, November 9-11, 1995, jointly sponsored by China's Ministry of Construction and Ministry of Finance, the People's Bank of China, the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. The symposium addressed a wide range of topics, including motor vehicle pollution, urban transport management and planning, bicycles in cities, mass rapid transit, public transit reform, and the role of the private sector.
Dhaka is the capital and the largest city of Bangladesh. Capital city area is about 304 sq. km and total waterway is about 48.56 sq km. Population density of Dhaka city is 23029 per sq. km. Dhaka is located in central Bangladesh at 23 42 0 N 90 22 30 E on the eastern banks of the Buriganga River. The transport sector in Dhaka is composed of many different modes of travel - both motorized and non-motorized, which use the same road space, resulting in a high level of operational disorder. Walking makes about 60% trip within the city. Traffic on the Dhaka urban highways is mainly rickshaw representing 56% of all movements with auto rickshaws 6%, buses 27% and car/jeep 9%. The intolerable traffic congestion of Dhaka City has become an everyday certainty and nightmare for the city dwellers. To solve this situation this research has anticipated coming up with a new idea of BRT to solve all these problems in the study area. The attempt of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is to combine the flexibility and low implementation cost of bus service with the comfort, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, land use influence and versatility of other mass transit options like light rail transit (LRT), Metro.
This book provides cities with strategies and methodologies for applying land value capture financing schemes for capital-intensive transit and transit-related investments, based on the successful experiences of Mass Transit Railway Corporation in Hong Kong SAR, China, and Japanese railway companies in Tokyo metropolitan areas.
'The consensus on global warming and its effects are now almost unanimous. Even those politicians with serious denial issues are converting. That said, the question becomes: How well does this book deal with urban sprawl and climate change? Professor Ruth is a master at organizing thought (and of creative thought... but an editor most needs the former). He has pulled together a very impressive list of experts from good institutions and organized their contributions to this subject in a meaningful, useful way. I think the coverage of the issue is both very competent and complete.' - Bruce Hannon, University of Illinois, Urbana, US This innovative volume systematically brings together two strands of applied research that, to date, have been carried out separately - 'smart growth' research and climate change adaptability research. By providing theory, models, and case studies from North America, Oceania and Europe, the book creates synergies between the two strands, reconciles differences, and provides insights for decision-makers at national and local levels.