This fascinating history reassesses the consequences of Portugal's flourishing private trade with Asia, including increased tensions between the growing urban merchant class and the still-dominant landed aristocracy. James C. Boyajian shows how Portuguese-Asian commerce formed part of a global trading network that linked not only Europe and Asia but also—for the first time—Asia, West Africa, Brazil, and Spanish America. He also argues that, contrary to previous scholarly opinion, nearly half of the Portuguese-Asian trade was controlled by New Christians—descendants of Iberian Jews forcibly converted to Christianity in the 1490s.
Using cutting-edge theory regarding trade networks and diaspora, this book offers an innovative analysis of Sephardic merchants in 17th c. Amsterdam’s trade. Challenging views that Sephardic success stemmed from endogamous business relationships, it shows that Sephardic merchants traded with non-Sephardim.
Illuminating one thousand years of history, The Pilgrim Art explores the remarkable cultural influence of Chinese porcelain around the globe. Cobalt ore was shipped from Persia to China in the fourteenth century, where it was used to decorate porcelain for Muslims in Southeast Asia, India, Persia, and Iraq. Spanish galleons delivered porcelain to Peru and Mexico while aristocrats in Europe ordered tableware from Canton. The book tells the fascinating story of how porcelain became a vehicle for the transmission and assimilation of artistic symbols, themes, and designs across vast distances—from Japan and Java to Egypt and England. It not only illustrates how porcelain influenced local artistic traditions but also shows how it became deeply intertwined with religion, economics, politics, and social identity. Bringing together many strands of history in an engaging narrative studded with fascinating vignettes, this is a history of cross-cultural exchange focused on an exceptional commodity that illuminates the emergence of what is arguably the first genuinely global culture.
Although trade connects distant people and regions, bringing cultures closer together through the exchange of material goods and ideas, it has not always led to unity and harmony. From the era of the Crusades to the dawn of colonialism, exploitation and violence characterized many trading ventures, which required vessels and convoys to overcome tremendous technological obstacles and merchants to grapple with strange customs and manners in a foreign environment. Yet despite all odds, experienced traders and licensed brokers, as well as ordinary people, travelers, pilgrims, missionaries, and interlopers across the globe, concocted ways of bartering, securing credit, and establishing relationships with people who did not speak their language, wore different garb, and worshipped other gods. Religion and Trade: Cross-Cultural Exchanges in World History, 1000-1900 focuses on trade across religious boundaries around the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the second millennium. Written by an international team of scholars, the essays in this volume examine a wide range of commercial exchanges, from first encounters between strangers from different continents to everyday transactions between merchants who lived in the same city yet belonged to diverse groups. In order to broach the intriguing yet surprisingly neglected subject of how the relationship between trade and religion developed historically, the authors consider a number of interrelated questions: When and where was religion invoked explicitly as part of commercial policies? How did religious norms affect the everyday conduct of trade? Why did economic imperatives, political goals, and legal institutions help sustain commercial exchanges across religious barriers in different times and places? When did trade between religious groups give way to more tolerant views of "the other" and when, by contrast, did it coexist with hostile images of those decried as "infidels"? Exploring captivating examples from across the world and spanning the course of the second millennium, this groundbreaking volume sheds light on the political, economic, and juridical underpinnings of cross-cultural trade as it emerged or developed at various times and places, and reflects on the cultural and religious significance of the passage of strange persons and exotic objects across the many frontiers that separated humankind in medieval and early modern times.
Release on 2013-07-28 | by Professor John Marriott,Professor Philippa Levine
Author: Professor John Marriott,Professor Philippa Levine
Pubpsher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Taking a broad, comparative approach to imperial experiences, this volume provides an authoritative survey of the latest research into the histories of modern empires. The focus is on the era of modern imperial history dating approximately from the early sixteenth century to the present. Such a periodization enables the volume to include the European experience of imperial expansion and settlement, important historical experiences outside the west such as those of Russia, Japan and China, the collapse of European empires attendant on decolonization in the post World War II period, and the contemporary example of North America. The companion is divided into three sections, 'Times', 'Spaces' and 'Themes' which allows chronological, geographical and thematical approaches to be successfully combined. In so doing this volume provides a unique research tool that will be invaluable to all students and scholars interested in the history of empires, imperialism and colonialism in the post-classical world.
Southeast Asia serves as an excellent case study to discuss major transformations in the relationship between states. This book looks at the changing nature of relationships between countries in Southeast Asia, as well as their relationships with other states in Asia and beyond. A diverse region in many areas, open to outside influence in many fields, but not without dynamics of its own, Southeast Asia has been through centuries the site of states with very differing levels of power and in a variety of forms. It has also been exposed to powerful neighbours, seawards empires and contending world powers. Adopting a historical approach, the book analyses state relations against the background of regional and geopolitical developments from within and without. It discusses how Southeast Asian states of the 21st century can best preserve their security in the context of the rise of China, and goes on to look at the extent to which they can preserve their autonomy of action. Offering a long-term perspective on these issues, this inter-disciplinary study is of interest to scholars and students of Southeast Asian history and politics, world history and international relations.
Release on 2001 | by Paolo Bernardini,Norman Fiering
Author: Paolo Bernardini,Norman Fiering
Pubpsher: Berghahn Books
Jews and Judaism played a significant role in the history of the expansion of Europe to the west as well as in the history of the economic, social, and religious development of the New World. They played an important role in the discovery, colonization, and eventually exploitation of the resources of the New World. Alone among the European peoples who came to the Americas in the colonial period, Jews were dispersed throughout the hemisphere; indeed, they were the only cohesive European ethnic or religious group that lived under both Catholic and Protestant regimes, which makes their study particularly fruitful from a comparative perspective. As distinguished from other religious or ethnic minorities, the Jewish struggle was not only against an overpowering and fierce nature but also against the political regimes that ruled over the various colonies of the Americas and often looked unfavorably upon the establishment and tleration of Jewish communities in their own territory. Jews managed to survive and occasionally to flourish against all odds, and their history in the Americas is one of the more fascinating chapters in the early modern history of European expansion.
Release on 2014-12-18 | by Anne Gerritsen,Giorgio Riello
Author: Anne Gerritsen,Giorgio Riello
Pubpsher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Writing Material Culture History examines the methodologies currently used in the historical study of material culture. Touching on archaeology, art history, literary studies and anthropology, the book provides history students with a fundamental understanding of the relationship between artefacts and historical narratives. The role of museums, the impact of the digital age and the representations of objects in public history are just some of the issues addressed in a book that brings together key scholars from around the world. A range of artefacts, including a 16th-century Peruvian crown and a 19th-century Alaskan Sea Lion overcoat, are considered, illustrating the myriad ways in which objects and history relate to one another. Bringing together scholars working in a variety of disciplines, this book provides a critical introduction for students interested in material culture, history and historical methodologies.