How Fascism Ruled Women

Italy, 1922-1945

How Fascism Ruled Women

"Italy has been made; now we need to make the Italians," goes a familiar Italian saying. Mussolini was the first head of state to include women in this mandate. How the fascist dictatorship defined the place of women in modern Italy and how women experienced the Duce's rule are the subjects of Victoria de Grazia's new work. De Grazia draws on an array of sources—memoirs and novels, the images, songs, and events of mass culture, as well as government statistics and archival reports. She offers a broad yet detailed characterization of Italian women's ambiguous and ambivalent experience of a regime that promised modernity, yet denied women emancipation. Always attentive to the great diversity among women and careful to distinguish fascist rhetoric from the practices that really shaped daily existence, the author moves with ease from the public discourse about femininity to the images of women in propaganda and commercial culture. She analyzes fascist attempts to organize women and the ways in which Mussolini's intentions were received by women as social actors. The first study of women's experience under Italian fascism, this is also a history of the making of contemporary Italian society.

When Fathers Ruled

Family Life in Reformation Europe

When Fathers Ruled

Here is a lively study of marriage and the family during the Reformation, primarily in Gemany and Switzerland, that dispels the commonly held notion of fathers as tyrannical and families as loveless.Did husbands and wives love one another in Reformation Europe? Did the home and family life matter to most people? In this wide-ranging work, Steven Ozment has gathered the answers of contemporaries to these questions. His subject is the patriarchal family in Germany and Switzerland, primarily among Protestants. But unlike modern scholars from Philippe Arics to Lawrence Stone, Ozment finds the fathers of early modern Europe sympathetic and even admirable. They were not domineering or loveless men, nor were their homes the training ground for passive citizenry in an age of political absolutism. From prenatal care to graveside grief, they expressed deep love for their wives and children. Rather than a place where women and children were bullied by male chauvinists, the Protestant home was the center of a domestic reform movement against Renaissance antifeminism and was an attempt to resolve the crises of family life. Demanding proper marriages for all women, Martin Luther and his followers suppressed convents and cloisters as the chief institutions of womankind's sexual repression, cultural deprivation, and male clerical domination. Consent, companionship, and mutual respect became the watchwords of marriage. And because they did, genuine divorce and remarriage became possible among Christians for the first time. This graceful book restores humanity to the Reformation family and to family history.

Rulers and Ruled

An Introduction to Classical Political Theory from Plato to the Federalists

Rulers and Ruled

A guide to the fundamentals of political thought. Zeitlin shows that certain thinkers have given us insights that rise above historical context - 'trans-historical principles' that can provide the political scientist with an element of foresight.

When Poetry Ruled the Streets

The French May Events of 1968

When Poetry Ruled the Streets

Offers a complete survey of the French May Events of 1968 through narrative, analysis, and documents.

Rulers and Ruled in Late Medieval England

Essays Presented to Gerald Harriss

Rulers and Ruled in Late Medieval England

How power was distributed and exercised is a key issue in understanding attitudes and assumptions in late medieval England. The essays in this volume all deal with those who had the power to make political decisions, whether kings, nobles or gentry, courtiers or clergy. While ultimately power rested on force, it was enshrined in the law and more usually exercised by influence and by the dangling of reward. Most disputes were settled without violence, if often with recourse to prolonged struggles in the courts, but those who offended against established interests could be punished severely, as the cases of Sir John Mortimer and of Bishop Reginald Pecock show. These essays, presented to Gerald Harriss, who has done so much to illuminate the history of the period, show not only how power was exercised but also how men of the time thought about it. Contributors: Rowena E. Archer, Christine Carpenter, Jeremy Catto, Rosemary Horrox, R.W. Hoyle, Maurice Keen, Dominic Luckett, Philippa Maddern, S.J. Payling, Edward Powell, Anthony Smith, Simon Walker, Christopher Woolgar, Edmund Wright.

Colonial Ambivalence, Cultural Authenticity, and the Limitations of Mimicry in French-ruled West Africa, 1914-1956

Colonial Ambivalence, Cultural Authenticity, and the Limitations of Mimicry in French-ruled West Africa, 1914-1956

"Colonial Ambivalence, Cultural Authenticity, and the Limitations of Mimicry in French-Ruled West Africa, 1914-1956" offers an innovative and provocative reassessment of the history and legacies of French colonial rule in West Africa between the First World War and the late 1950s. Making critical use of postcolonial and cultural theory, James E. Genova argues that the colonizers and the colonized were locked in a struggle for authority increasingly structured by competing notions of what it meant to be French or African. This book breaks new ground by demonstrating the centrality of the cultural question in the imperial encounters between France and West Africa. It maps the emergence of the French-educated elite as a social class in French West Africa as a window into the complex relationship between agency and structural context in the making of history. A disjunction developed between decolonization and liberation in the colonial liaison of France and West Africa that left colonizers and colonized trapped in a neocolonial cultural framework actualizing Frantz Fanon's deepest fears about the postcolony.

Ruled Surfaces generated by special curves in Eucleadean 3-Space

Ruled Surfaces generated by special curves in Eucleadean 3-Space

In this paper, a family of ruled surfaces generated by some special curves using a Frenet frame of Eucleadean 3-Spase is investigated.

Ruled Varieties

An Introduction to Algebraic Differential Geometry

Ruled Varieties

Ruled varieties are unions of a family of linear spaces. They are objects of algebraic geometry as well as differential geometry, especially if the ruling is developable. This book is an introduction to both aspects, the algebraic and differential one. Starting from very elementary facts, the necessary techniques are developed, especially concerning Grassmannians and fundamental forms in a version suitable for complex projective algebraic geometry. Finally, this leads to recent results on the classification of developable ruled varieties and facts about tangent and secant varieties. Compared to many other topics of algebraic geometry, this is an area easily accessible to a graduate course.

Integral Invariants Of Mannheim O-sets Of Ruled Surfaces

Integral Invariants Of Mannheim O-sets Of Ruled Surfaces

Ruled surface was found and investigated by Gaspard Monge who established the partial differential equation that satises all ruled surface. In differential geometry, the ruled surface have been treated in different ways.

Optimization with Ruled Surface

Optimization with Ruled Surface

This dissertation provides a novel design approach with respect to ruled surface, which is a special type of surface generated by moving a line in the space. Ruled surface is a favorable choice in manufacture and can be found in many application fields. In this dissertation, a ruled surface in Euclidean space is represented as a curve on a dual unit sphere (DUS) by employing the Klein mapping and the Study mapping. A novel definition of dual spherical spline is proposed and a complete kinematic ruled surface approximation algorithm is developed and tested with turbocharger blade data. More generally, a ruled surface is defined by several control points of a dual spherical spline. It provides an initial prototype for the blade geometry optimization with ruled surface. Finally, combining the kinematic ruled surface approximation algorithm with the offset theory, a novel design and manu- facturing strategy is proposed. A desired surface is presented as a tool path of the flank milling method with a cylindrical tool in 5-axis CNC machining. It integrates the manufacturing requirements in the design phase, which can reduce the design- cycle time and save the manufacturing cost.