In this volume organizational learning theory is used to analyse various practices of managing and facilitating knowledge sharing within companies. Experiences with three types of knowledge sharing, namely knowledge acquisition, knowledge reuse, and knowledge creation, at ten large companies are discussed and analyzed. This critical analysis leads to the identification of traps and obstacles when managing knowledge sharing, when supporting knowledge sharing with IT tools, and when organizations try to learn from knowledge sharing practices. The identification of these risks is followed by a discussion of how organizations can avoid them. This work will be of interest to researchers and practitioners working in organization science and business administration. Also, consultants and organizations at large will find the book useful as it will provide them with insights into how other organizations manage and facilitate knowledge sharing and how potential failures can be prevented.
The productivity in pharmaceutical research and development faces intense pres sure. R&D expenditures of the major US and European companies have topped US$ 33 billion in 2003 compared to around US$ 13 billion just a decade ago. At the same time, the number of new drug approvals has dropped from 53 in 1996 to only 35 in 2003. Moreover, the protraction of clinical trials has significantly reduced the effective time of patent protection. The consequences are devastating. Monopoly profits have started to decline and the average costs per new drug have reached a re cord level of close to US$ 1 billion today. As a result, any failure of a new sub stance in the R&D process can lead to considerable losses, and the risks of introduc ing a new drug to the market have grown tremendously. Particularly if a company is highly dependent on just a handful of mega-selling blockbuster drugs, the risks can be even greater. For example, Pfizer generated about 90% of its worldwide revenues in 2002 with just 8 products. Any shortfall of a promising late-stage drug candidate would have left Pfizer with a gaping hole in its product portfolio. In order to deal with these risks, many pharmaceutical companies have started to organize their R&D in partnership. In fact, more than 600 alliances in pharmaceutical R&D are signed every year.
Explores historical and philosophical shifts in the depiction of women and virtue in the early years of the Chinese state. Includes an examination of the history of yin-yang theories.
Letting Go? investigates path-breaking public history practices at a time when the traditional expertise of museums seems challenged at every turn—by the Web and digital media, by community-based programming, by new trends in oral history and by contemporary art. In this anthology of 19 thought pieces, case studies, conversations and commissioned art, almost 30 leading practitioners such as Michael Frisch, Jack Tchen, Liz Ševcenko, Kathleen McLean, Nina Simon, Otabenga Jones and Associates, and Fred Wilson explore the implications of letting audiences create, not just receive, historical content. Drawing on examples from history, art, and science museums, Letting Go? offers concrete examples and models that will spark innovative work at institutions of all sizes and budgets. This engaging new collection will serve as an introductory text for those newly grappling with a changing field and, for those already pursuing the goal of “letting go,” a tool for taking stock and pushing ahead.
Are individuals responsible for the consequences of actions taken by their community? What about their community's inaction or its attitudes? In this innovative book, Larry May departs from the traditional Western view that moral responsibility is limited to the consequences of overt individual action. Drawing on the insights of Arendt, Jaspers, and Sartre, he argues that even when individuals are not direct participants, they share responsibility for various harms perpetrated by their communities.
This review examines the effectiveness of the World Bank's strategy to facilitate the sharing of development knowledge and information with client countries, as well as the institutional infrastructure put in place to implement it (including resources, governance and technology). Findings include that the Bank has made good progress in establishing the tools and activities to support its initiative, but it has not established adequate business processes and management responsibilities. The review recommends that the Bank take three sets of actions regarding: the need for greater strategic direction and oversight of the Bank's knowledge processes; linking knowledge-sharing activities to lending and non-lending processes; and setting outcome objectives and supporting programme performance indicators in accordance with agreed monitoring and evaluation procedures.
The model contract for oil and gas development known as the Production Sharing Contract (PSC) originated in Indonesia in 1966 and enjoyed over a decade of successful implementation, with minor adjustments, in several oil-producing countries. In more recent years, however, numerous problems have arisen as changes in economic realities have driven the level of private investment down. This penetrating study, the only one of its kind, uses legal analysis as well as historical data to pinpoint the reasons for the initial success of the PSC and for its subsequent and persistent frustrations for investors. The author first examines the original Indonesian contract, along with the variants adopted in Malaysia and the People's Republic of China, and then proceeds to an in-depth analysis of the main clauses and their amendments and execution in all three countries. Taking into account various commissioned surveys and emerging policies and strategies espoused by both governments and industry representatives, he concludes with a detailed proposal for an overhauled contract that allows for meaningful adjustments, or even renegotiation, when the balance of interests between parties changes substantially. Focusing as it does on some central issues in global economic development, The Indonesian Production Sharing Contract will be of great value to lawyers, multinational corporate executives, and policymakers far beyond the Asia-Pacific region.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 25th British National Conference on Databases, BNCOD 25, held in Cardiff, UK, in July 2008. The 14 revised full papers and 7 revised poster papers presented together with an invited contribution were carefully reviewed and selected from 45 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on data mining and privacy, data integration, stream and event data processing, and query processing and optimisation. The volume in addition contains 5 invited papers by leading researchers from the International Colloquium on Advances in Database Research and the two best papers from the workshop on Biodiversity Informatics: Challenges in Modelling and Managing Biodiversity Knowledge.
This e-book examines the importance of knowledge sharing within organisations. It explores whether the organizational processes we follow in everyday life can be applied to organizational life.
There are a number of points throughout the trade mark system where multiple undertakings share the same name, either unwillingly, or by consent. In this timely book, expert contributors address this controversial issue and identify the various points at which names are shared. This unique book uses both historical and interdisciplinary perspectives, as well as more traditional legal methodology, to examine the practical and theoretical implications of such name sharing for the parties involved. It analyses what can be learned from the sharing process about the nature of the trade mark system and the interests which it protects. General themes relating to the nature and purpose of trade mark law are also discussed. The contributors focus on UK and European law and their detailed treatment of specific trade mark topics will prove invaluable to postgraduate law students and academics specialising in intellectual property. Legal practitioners will appreciate the up-to-date consideration of concepts important in both contentious and non-contentious trade mark practice and in-house counsel for brand owners will benefit from the expert guidance offered on issues relevant to protecting their trade marks.
Contents: (1) The Need for a Nat. Strategy; Guiding Principles; Linkage with Other Nat. Strategies; (2) Background and the Current Environment: What Has Been Accomplished Since 9/11?; Continuing Challenges; Legislative and Regulatory Background; (3) Sharing Info. at the Fed. Level; (4) Sharing Info. with State and Local Gov¿ts.; Interagency Threat Assessment and Coordination Group; State and Major Urban Area Fusion Centers; (4) Sharing Info. with the Private Sector; (5) Sharing Info. with Foreign Partners; (6) Protecting Privacy and Other Legal Rights in the Sharing of Info.: Core Privacy Principles; Privacy Governance; (7) Institutionalizing the Strategy for Long-Term Success: Protecting the Info. Privacy and Legal Rights of Amer.
The field of knowledge management focuses on how organizations can most effectively store, manage, retrieve, and enlarge their intellectual properties. The repository view of knowledge management emphasizes the gathering, providing, and filtering of explicit knowledge. The information in a repository has the advantage of being easily transferable and reusable. But it is not easy to use decontextualized information, and users often need access to human experts. This book describes a more recent approach to knowledge management, which the authors call "expertise sharing." Expertise sharing emphasizes the human aspects -- cognitive, social, cultural, and organizational -- of knowledge management, in addition to information storage and retrieval. Rather than focusing on the management level of an organization, expertise sharing focuses on the self-organized activities of the organization's members. The book addresses the concerns of both researchers and practitioners, describing current literature and research as well as offering information on implementing systems. It consists of three parts: an introduction to knowledge sharing in large organizations; empirical studies of expertise sharing in different types of settings; and detailed descriptions of computer systems that can route queries, assemble people and work, and augment naturally occurring social networks within organizations.