This book examines and evaluates various private initiatives to enforce fair labor standards within global supply chains. Using unique data (internal audit reports and access to more than 120 supply chain factories and 700 interviews in 14 countries) from several major global brands, including NIKE, HP and the International Labor Organization's Factory Improvement Programme in Vietnam, this book examines both the promise and the limitations of different approaches to actually improve working conditions, wages and working hours for the millions of workers employed in today's global supply chains. Through a careful, empirically grounded analysis of these programs, this book illustrates the mix of private and public regulation needed to address these complex issues in a global economy.
The keys to global business success, as taught by a T-shirt'sjourney The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy is acritically-acclaimed narrative that illuminates the globalizationdebates and reveals the key factors to success in global business.Tracing a T-shirt's life story from a Texas cotton field to aChinese factory and back to a U.S. storefront before arriving atthe used clothing market in Africa, the book uncovers the politicaland economic forces at work in the global economy. Along the way,this fascinating exploration addresses a wealth of compellingquestions about politics, trade, economics, ethics, and the impactof history on today's business landscape. This new printing of thesecond edition includes a revised preface and a new epilogue withupdates through 2014 on the people, industries, and policiesrelated to the T-shirt's life story. Using a simple, everyday T-shirt as a lens through which toexplore the business, economic, moral, and political complexitiesof globalization in a historical context, Travelsencapsulates a number of complex issues into a single identifiableobject that will strike a chord with readers as they: Investigate the sources of sustained competitive advantage indifferent industries Examine the global economic and political forces that explaintrade patters between countries Analyze complex moral issues related to globalization andinternational business Discover the importance of cultural and human elements ininternational trade This story of a simple product illuminates the many complexissues which businesspeople, policymakers, and global citizens aretouched by every day.
In Public Law and Private Power, John W. Cioffi argues that the highly politicized reform of corporate governance law has reshaped power relations within the public corporation in favor of financial interests, contributed to the profound crises of contemporary capitalism, and eroded its political foundations. Analyzing the origins of pro-shareholder and pro-financial market reforms in the United States and Germany during the past two decades, Cioffi unravels a double paradox: the expansion of law and the regulatory state at the core of the financially driven neoliberal economic model and the surprising role of Center Left parties in championing the interests of shareholders and the financial sector. Since the early 1990s, changes in law to alter the structure of the corporation and financial markets—two institutional pillars of modern capitalism—highlight the contentious regulatory politics that reshaped the legal architecture of national corporate governance regimes and thus the distribution of power and wealth among managers, investors, and labor. Center Left parties embraced reforms that strengthened shareholder rights as part of a strategy to cultivate the support of the financial sector, promote market-driven firm-level economic adjustment, and appeal to popular outrage over recurrent corporate financial scandals. The reforms played a role in fostering an increasingly unstable financially driven economic order; their implication in the global financial crisis in turn poses a threat to center-left parties and the legitimacy of contemporary finance capitalism.
It’s time to rethink the way we think about China. In this thought-provoking book, noted China experts from Harvard Business School and the Wharton School assert that while China has experienced remarkable economic growth in recent decades (nearly 10 percent for more than thirty years), it now faces major challenges—tests that could shift the country’s political and economic trajectory. A lack of accountability, transparency, and ease of operating in China—combined with growing evidence of high-level corruption—has made domestic and foreign businesspeople increasingly wary of the “China model.” These issues have deep roots in Chinese history and the country’s political system. Regina M. Abrami of the Wharton School and William C. Kirby and F. Warren McFarlan of Harvard Business School contend that the country’s dynamic private sector could be a source of sustainable growth, but it is constrained by political favoritism toward state-owned corporations. Disruptive innovation, research, and development are limited by concerns about intellectual property protection. Most significant of all is the question of China’s political future: does a system that has overseen dramatic transformations in recent years now have the capacity to transform itself? Based on a new and popular course taught by the authors at Harvard Business School, this book draws on more than thirty Harvard Business School case studies on Chinese and foreign companies doing business in the region, including Sealed Air, China Merchants Bank, China Mobile, Wanxiang Group, Microsoft, UFIDA, and others. Can China Lead? asserts that China is at an inflection point that cannot be ignored. An understanding of the forces that continue to shape its business landscape is crucial to establishing—and maintaining—a successful enterprise in China.
Many legal experts no longer share an unbounded trust in the potential of law to govern society efficiently and responsibly. They often experience the 'limits of the law', as they are confronted with striking inadequacies in their legal toolbox, with inner inconsistencies of the law, with problems of enforcement and obedience, and with undesired side-effects, and so on. The contributors to this book engage in the challenging task of making sense of this experience. Against the background of broader cultural transformations (such as globalisation, new technologies, individualism and cultural diversity), they revisit a wide range of areas of the law and map different types of limits in relation to some basic functions and characteristics of the law. Additionally, they offer a set of strategies to manage justifiably law's limits, such as dedramatising law's limits, conceptual refinement ('constructivism'), striking the right balance between different functions of the law, seeking for complementarity between law and other social practices.
Since the end of the Cold War, a virtual army of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from the United States, Britain, Germany, and elsewhere in Europe have flocked to Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia. These NGOs are working on such diverse tasks as helping to establish competitive political parties, elections, and independent media, as well as trying to reduce ethnic conflict. This important book is among the few efforts to assess the impact of these international efforts to build democratic institutions. The case studies presented here provide a portrait of the mechanisms by which ideas commonly associated with democratic states have evolved in formerly communist states, revealing conditions that help as well as hurt the process.
Much of international law, like much of contract, is enforced not by independent sanctions but rather through cooperative interaction among the parties, with repeat dealings, reputation, and a preference for reciprocity doing most of the enforcement work. Originally published in 2006, The Limits of Leviathan identifies areas in international law where formal enforcement provides the most promising means of promoting cooperation and where it does not. In particular, it looks at the International Criminal Court, the rules for world trade, efforts to enlist domestic courts to enforce orders of the International Court of Justice, domestic judicial enforcement of the Geneva Convention, the domain of international commercial agreements, and the question of odious debt incurred by sovereigns. This book explains how international law, like contract, depends largely on the willingness of responsible parties to make commitments.
The idea of human dominion over nature has become entrenched by the dominant rights-based interpretation of private property. Accordingly, nature is not attributed any inherent value and becomes merely the matter of a human property relationship. Earth Jurisprudence: Private Property and the Environment explores how an alternative conception of property might be instead grounded in the ecocentric concept of an Earth community. Recognising that human beings are deeply interconnected with and dependent on nature, this concept is proposed as a standard and measure for human law. This book argues that the anthropocentric institution of private property needs to be reconceived; drawing on international case law, indigenous views of property and the land use practices of agrarian communities, Peter Burdon considers how private property can be reformulated in a way that fosters duties towards nature. Using the theory of earth jurisprudence as a guide, he outlines an alternative ecocentric description of private property as a relationship between and among members of the Earth community. This book will appeal to those researching in law, justice and ecology, as well as anyone pursuing an interest more particularly in earth jurisprudence.
In order to assess the present condition of cities, Liberal Dreams and Nature's Limits focuses on five large North American cities at various times in the past - Philadelphia (about 1760), New York (1860), Chicago (1910), Los Angeles (1950) and Toronto (1975). The author believes that we canonly begin to understand the current problems that North American urban areas are experiencing by examining the historical development of cities. The author examines the 'liberal dreams' of urban dwellers and city politicians and the limits nature imposes on the growth and development of thesecities.Dr. Lemon's central concern in this volume is to examine what life was like in these, or other, North American cities. In particular, he focuses on the urban economy, society and politics, urban public services, land development, and the geographies of the circulation, workplaces, and residentialdistricts.Dr. Lemon also draws contrasts and similarities between the American and Canadian urban experiences. And although one city is the primary focus of each of the historical chapters, other examples of Canadian and American cities of that time period are integrated into these chapters. For example,the chapter on L.A. in the 1950s concentrates on the development of residential suburban life and includes references to other American and some Canadian cities and their differing experiences in the 1950s.
Provides analysis of the relationship between digital information technologies and politics, relating these issues to the historical system transformation.
This book analyzes the influence of business in democratic politics. Advice from business actors regularly carries more weight with policymakers than other interests because it refers to the core of the state-market nexus in democratic capitalism: the consequences for voters and policymakers of harming business and the economy. The book examines the resulting informational and structural constraints on public policymaking and their strategic use by business lobbyists. While the role of information is frequently acknowledged in studies on business political influence, very few empirical analyses of its strategic use exist. This book outlines a theoretical model of the role of information and its asymmetric supply for business actors’ ability to influence policy. Focusing on banking regulation and environmental politics, the informational–structural view of business power is evaluated empirically in a cross-national, multi-level research design involving case studies as well as quantitative analyses of elite survey data and policy outcomes in advanced capitalist democracies. Patrick Bernhagen suggests that, while democracy in capitalist society is vulnerable to a pro-business policy bias, better informed policymakers can redress the balance of power with business and improve on bringing policies in line with public preferences. His analysis identifies the institutional and behavioural factors affecting business’ informational power. The Political Power of Business will be of particular interest to students and researchers of political science, policymaking and business studies.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural change, health status and medical care, and the family. Six volumes resulted from this study. This, the fourth, considers social, political, and economic issues for black Americans. These issues are discussed in the following essays: (1) "Stratification and Subordination: Change and Continuity" (E. Yvonne Moss and Wornie L. Reed); (2) "Race and Inequality in the Managerial Age" (William Darity, Jr.); (3) "Black Political Participation: The Search for Power" (E. Yvonne Moss); and (4) "The Search for Voice: Ideology and Perspective in the Black Community" (Philip L. Clay). An appendix lists the members of the project study group and other contributors. Each chapter contains references. (SLD)
The Global Promise of Federalism honours the life and work of Richard Simeon, one of Canada’s foremost experts on federalism. It features a group of distinguished scholars of federalism from Canada and abroad who take up some of the fundamental questions at the heart of both Simeon’s work and contemporary debates. Does federalism foster democracy? Can it help bring together divided societies? How do federations evolve and adapt to changing circumstances? In the course of answering these questions, the chapters in this collection offer a comparative perspective on the challenges and opportunities facing well-established federations such as Canada and Australia, as well as new federal and quasi-federal systems in Europe, Africa, and Asia. They examine the interplay between federal values, such as trust and mutual recognition, and institutional design; the challenges facing post-conflict federations; and the adaptability of federal systems in the face of changing social, economic, and cultural contexts.